What is Traumatic Brain Injury?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. It can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Symptoms of a traumatic brain injury can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. A person with a mild traumatic brain injury may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation. Every year, 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries occur in the U.S.

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What are the Symptoms of Traumatic Brain Injury?

Traumatic brain injury symptoms vary depending on the extent of the injury and the area of the brain affected. Some symptoms appear immediately; others may appear several days or even weeks later. A person with traumatic brain injury may or may not lose consciousness—loss of consciousness is not always a sign of severe traumatic brain injury.

Symptoms of traumatic brain injury may include

  • Headache that gets worse or won’t go away
  • Repeated vomiting or nausea
  • Slurred speech
  • Convulsions or seizures
  • An inability to wake up from sleep
  • Enlargement of the pupil (dark center) of one or both eyes
  • Numbness or tingling of arms or legs
  • Loss of coordination
  • Increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation
  • Loss of consciousness lasting a few minutes to hours

How is Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosed?

To diagnose traumatic brain injury, health care providers may use one or more tests that assess a person's physical injuries, brain and nerve functioning, and level of consciousness. Some of these tests are described below.

  • Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
  • Measurements for level of TBI
  • Speech and language tests
  • Cognition and neuropsychological tests
  • Imaging tests

How is Traumatic Brain Injury Treated?

Anyone with signs of moderate or severe traumatic brain injury should receive medical attention as soon as possible. Because little can be done to reverse the initial brain damage caused by trauma, medical personnel try to stabilize an individual with traumatic brain injury and focus on preventing further injury. Primary concerns include insuring proper oxygen supply to the brain and the rest of the body, maintaining adequate blood flow, and controlling blood pressure. Imaging tests help in determining the diagnosis and prognosis of a traumatic brain injury patient. Patients with mild to moderate injuries may receive skull and neck X-rays to check for bone fractures or spinal instability. For moderate to severe cases, the imaging test is a computed tomography (CT) scan. Moderately to severely injured patients receive rehabilitation that involves individually tailored treatment programs in the areas of physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech/language therapy, physiatry (physical medicine), psychology/psychiatry, and social support.

Prognosis for Traumatic Brain Injury

Approximately half of severe traumatic brain injury patients will need surgery to remove or repair hematomas (ruptured blood vessels) or contusions (bruised brain tissue). Disabilities resulting from a traumatic brain injury depend upon the severity of the injury, the location of the injury, and the age and general health of the individual. Some common disabilities include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), communication (expression and understanding), and behavior or mental health (depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness). More serious head injuries may result in stupor, an unresponsive state, but one in which an individual can be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus, such as sharp pain; coma, a state in which an individual is totally unconscious, unresponsive, unaware, and unarousable; vegetative state, in which an individual is unconscious and unaware of his or her surroundings, but continues to have a sleep-wake cycle and periods of alertness; and a persistent vegetative state, in which an individual stays in a vegetative state for more than a month. Life expectancy cannot be generalized, as it’s based on such factors as age, sex, and severity of disability.

Mobility for Those with Traumatic Brain Injury

Many with traumatic brain injury experience the loss of the ability to walk and position themselves, necessitating the use of a specialized power wheelchair. Quantum Rehab®, the global leader in individualized power chairs, puts an emphasis on mobility technologies specific toward the needs of those with traumatic brain injury.

Quantum Power Chairs incorporate power-adjustable seating for user repositioning and comfort; specialty drive controls, including those requiring minimal hand strength; and, a highly-adaptable design to meet an individual’s current and future needs.

Quantum Power Chairs feature the latest advanced technologies to increase the independence of those living with traumatic brain injury. iLevel® seat elevation technology allows a user to operate the power chair at seated or standing height. Bluetooth® is also integrated into Quantum’s Q-Logic 3 electronics, so those with traumatic brain injury can operate much of their environment with the power chair drive control, itself.

For those with traumatic brain injury, Quantum Power Chairs are designed to provide optimal medical comfort and maximum independence. Please click here for more information on Quantum Power Chair solutions for those living with traumatic brain injury.

The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any use of such marks by Quantum Rehab is under license. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.

About Quantum Rehab

Quantum Rehab® was born out of the desire to delight customers with the most advanced, consumer-inspired complex rehab power wheelchairs and related technologies possible.

At Quantum, consumer needs and wishes are the driving force. We’re dedicated to not just meeting medical and clinical needs, but also quality-of-life needs. From the most advanced power seating for pressure management to USB ports, Bluetooth and fender lights, no consumer need is overlooked.


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